THE MIZO ISRAEL IDENTITY
(as it is written in the memorandum to the Chief Minister of Mizoram)
The ten tribes of Israel became “lost” around 720 BC when the Assyrians conquered the northern kingdom of Israel and exiled the tribes that comprised it. The southern kingdom of Judah was spared the conquest, and the Jews of today primarily descended from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, which composed the southern Kingdom. The Jews had split into two separate political entities after king Solomon’s death around 920 BC.
Menashe whose population was about 32200 at that time were taken aslave by the Assyrians and were brought to Assyria after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. They migrated toward Afghanistan from Assyrian During the time of Alexander’s invasion they moved along Kashmir area and Tibet plateau to escape to Mongolia and to Chhinlung in China,. They at one time settled in Laos, Vietnam and Burma there migrated to Mizoram ( The New Jerusalem by T Bhattaoharya ).
The tribe have so far claimed to belong to one of the lost tribe of Israel, Menashe and Ephraim, the two sons of Joseph, whose father was Jacob in the Bible, Kuki Chin Mizo tribes have passed down through the generation the tradition that they were the descendents of the lost tribe of Menashe which is one of the twelve tribes of Israel.
1. The Chhinlung Chhuak as we called ourselves or the Chin Lushai. or Luz Israel etc, as called by the British Government and popularly known as MIZO in Indian Constitution are the Lost tribe of Israel of the tribe of MANNASEH and EPHRAIM, the sons of Joseph born in Egypt through his Egyptian wife Asenath, daughter of Potiphearah, Priest of On -Genesis 41: 45, 51, 52. (And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaph’nath-pa-a-na’h; and he gave him to wife Asenath, daughter of Potipherah, Priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt… And unto Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, which Asenath the daughter of Potipharah, priest of On bare unto him. And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: For God said he had made me forgot all my toil, and all my father’s house. And the name of the second called he Ephraim: For God had caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction)
2. According to the folklores, the forefather of the Chhinlung Chhuak / Mizo hailed from an place called Chhinlung, a mythical rock cave somewhere in the northern part of China, before that they were in captive in Babylon, Assyria, from there they move eastwards. So the word Chhinlung Chhuak means one who comes out of the rock or cave as in the Book of lsaiah 51: 1-2.( Hearken to me ye that follow after righteousness. Ye that seek the Lord: look unto the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye are digged. )
In 331 B.C. when Alexander the Great conquered Persia Afghanistan and India, some of the lost tribes were exiled to Afghanistan and to other countries. On their onward migration, it is said: “From Afghanistan, their migration continued eastward through Hindukus until they reached the Tibetan region and the Chinese border. From there they continued into China, following the Wei River until they reached the central region. A settlement was established at Kaifeng in 231 B.C.
As a result of the cruel behavior of the Chinese towards them, they were forced to serve like slaves to the Chinese. Thus began the process of assimilation which crept into the tribes as a result of Chinese influences. “ Citing Chao Enti’s version, Hranglien Songate contends that the forefathers of Hmars had already settled in China by the time Shi Huang-ti (209-207 B.C.) established his suzerainty over the greater part of the Chinese empire. He further argues that the Chin dynasty had absorbed many of the tribes that settled in China and those who refused to be assimilated were pushed out and the forefathers of Hmar-Kuki-Mizo could perhaps be one of them. Mainly on the basis of these oral traditions which point to the historical connection between the Shinlung people and the Israelites, some sections of Kuki and Mizo in Manipur and Mizoram have now already in the Judaising process. As a matter of fact, as many as 700 Kuki-Mizo have been settled in the territories in Judea, Samaria and Gaza in Israel on the initiative of Eliyahu Avichail, a soft-spoken, grey-bearded Jerusalem Rabbinical scholar.
Whether one agrees with the theory of the Jewish origin, we can no longer ignore the fact that it has new gained topicality and urgency both among the local writers in North East India and the Rabbinical scholars and intellectuals in Israel. Accompanying Rabbi Avichaii in his extensive tour of East Asia and South East Asia including North East India in search of lost tribe of Israel several times, Hillei Halkin, an Israel veteran journalist, has just published a very thought provoking and illuminating book entitled Across the Sabbath River: In Search of a Lost Tribe of Israel.
3. To further support the theory of the Jewish connection, it is again argued that the Hmars like the Jews used to observe three important festivals in a year, such as the Chapchar Kut (in April); Mim Kut (in September) and Pawl Kut (in December). In pre-Christian era, whenever the forefathers of Hmars performed sacrificial rites, the priest used to construct an altar having four corners and sprinkled animal’s blood on the flour which was spread on the platform of an altar. These religious practices tend to suggest that the ancestors of Hmars and the Jews might perhaps live together at one point of time in the past. Most often quoted in this connection is the Hmar Sikpui Festival which was celebrated from time immemorial.
According to L Hranglien Songate (Hmar History: 1956), the first known ancestor of Hmars was Manmasi (Manasia) who occupied a very sacred and important place in the lives and beliefs of Hmars. His name was uttered in prayers and ceremonial sacrifices. Whenever they were to make any new settlement or to undertake an adventurous exploits, they had to invoke Mammasi’s name. In times of great calamities like earthquake, they used to shout, “ Be kind, be kind; we, the descendants of Manmasi are here!” As for the origin of this name, it is argued that it is derived from Mannaseh, the
Sikpui inthang kan ur laia, Changtuipui aw sen mah rili kangintan.
While we are preparing for the Sikpul Feast,
The song is self-revealing. It speaks about the incident as referred to the Exodus (Old Testament), Chapter 14: 1-31. On the significance of the song, L.Keivom, lFS (Retd) illuminatingly comments thus: “This popular song occupies such a sacred place that the Sikpui festival can start only after the participants sing it with rapt attention. This fact may, therefore, suggest that the incident referred to in the song might have been an unusual happening of great consequence in the pages of their national history Otherwise they could not have attached such importance to it.” Assuming that the Hmars and Kuki-Mizo people originally came from ancient Israel what routes and which countries did they pass through to reach their present habitats? Hranglien Songate again simply stated that the Hmars entered China from the north after having passed through Afghanistan and Baluchistan., lt is argued that some of the ten lost tribes were taken as captives by the king of Assyria in 722 B.C. and some of them lived in Persia following their exile there in 457 B.C. during the reign of Darius and Ahashveresh.
The Mizo history in the 18th and 19th Century as marked by Several instances of tribal raids and retaliatory expeditions at security Mizo hills were formally declared as part of the British India by proclamation in 1895 North and south hills were united into Lushai Hills district in 1898 with Aizawl as its headquarters.
Mizos are a scheduled tribe in northeastern India, primarily in The state of Mizoram. Here they are majority. Mizo people live in a close-knit society with no class distinction and no discrimination on grounds of sex. The entire Mizo society is knitted together by a peculiar code of ethics called Thlawmngaihna. This concept makes each individual responsible for his/her action and demands that he/she be hospitable helpful, considerate and honest in his dealings with others.
The term “Zomi” meaning, ‘Zo People’ is derived from the generic name ‘Zo’ the progenitor of the Zomi. In the past they were little known by this racial nomenclature, They were known by the non-tribal plain peoples of Burma, Bangladesh and lndia as Chin, Kuki, or Lushai,. Subsequently the British employed these terms to christen those “wild hill tribes” living ln the ‘un-administered areas’ and was subsequently legalised to be the names for the newly adopted subjects by Queen Victoria of England. However, they called themselves Zomi since time immemorial. They are Zomi not because they live in the highlands or hills, but are Zomi and called themselves Zomi because they are the descendants of their great great ancestor, “ZO”.
ln this regards, F.K. Lehman, Professor of Anthropology and Linguistics, University of Illinois (USA), who had done extensive study on the Chin of Burma. No single Chin word has explicit reference to all the people we customarily call Chin but all- or nearly all of the peoples have a special word for themselves and those of their congeners with whom they are in regular contact. This word is almost a variant form of a single root, which appears as Zo, Yo, Ysou, Shou and the like.’
Relating to this generic name, Fan-Cho a diplomat of the Tang dynasty of China, mentioned in 862 AD a Kingdom in the Chindwin Valley ‘whose Princes and Chiefs were called Shou (Zo)’ . In 1783, Father Vincentius Sangermano in his book, ‘A description of the Burmese Empire’ described them as, “a petty nation called JO (JAW)” Sir Henry Yule, as early as 1508 mentioned about the YO country the location of which was “west of the mouth of the Kyen-dwen (Chindwin) the interior of Doab, between the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin, from Mout-Shabo upwards and the whole of the hill country east and north-east of the capital forwards the Ruby-mines, the upper course of Hyitnge, and the Chinese frontier”. Rev Howard Malcolm also testified thus, “The YAW (Z0) is on the lower waters of the Khyendiwen (Chindwin) not far from Ava. The district is sometimes called YO or JO”.
Another early use of the name ZO with reference to the Zomi (Kuki-Chin-Lushai), the first on the Lushai Hills side which till then was a terra incognito, was by Coll. T.H.Lewing the first white man to know the inhabitants of Lushai Hills (Mizoram). He wrote that he came to know, during the Lushai Expedition of 1871-72 that, ‘the generic name of the whole nation is Dzo’ Dr. Francis Buchanan also wrote of Zomi and Zomi language, while Captain Pemberton mentioned Zo or Jo in his ‘Reports on the Eastern Frontiers of British India, 1835’. The fact that the Zomi were known as ZOU or YO or YAW, before their society evolved into clan based organisation and lineage segmentation, was pointed out by Dr, G.A. Grierson in his survey,thus, ‘The name (Kuki and Chin) is not used by the tribes themselves, who use titles such as ZOU or Y0 or CHO’.
Rev Sukte T. Hau Go, a former lecturer of Mandalay University (Burma) also shared the same view, “Zomi is the correct original historical name of our People, from the Naga hill to the Bay of Bengal. To the North of Tedim, the Thadous and other tribes call themselves Y0; in Falam, Laizo, The Tedim people call themselves Zo; the Lushais, Mizo; in Haka, Zotung, Zophei, Zokhua. In Gangaw area Z0 is pronounced as YAW, in Mindat Jo and CHO: and in Paletwa Khomi. In Prome, Thayetmyo, Sandoway and Bassein areas they Call themselves A-Sho. So inspite of slight _variations Zomi is our original historical national name”.
Regarding the truth of Zomi as the racial designation of the so-called Kuki-Chin people, U Theln Re Myint, a well known Burmese Writer, who knew Chin history, perhaps better than the Chin themselves remarks:
Two British administrators, Bertram S. Carey and H.N.Tuck who place Zo people under modern system of administration record as thus: ‘Those of the Kuki tribes which we designate as “Chins” do not recognize that name ….. they call themselves YO (ZO)…and YO (ZO) is the general name by which the Chin call their race’.
Another European writer, Sir J. George Scott also claimed that, the Zomi never called themselves by such name as Kuki or Chin or Lushai. He wrote:
It is therefore, no wonder that Zoml use the term Zo, Zou, Zhou, Chou, Shou, Yo, Jo, Yaw, Shu, etc in their speech and poetic language as Zo-Vontawi Zo-lei, Zogam or Zoram, Zo-tui, Zo-fa, etc; in naming geographical namee such as Zotlang, Zopui, Zobawks; and in some of the clan names like Zophel, Zotung, Zokhua, Laizo, Bawmzo, Zote, etc. All these have a common derivation from the generic name, “Z0”. It is also because ot the fact that scholars like Dr. Vum Kho Hau, Prof. Laldena, Dr. Vum Son, Dr. Tualchin Neihsial, Dr. H. Kamkhenthang, Dr. Mangkhosat Kipgen, Cap. Sing Khaw Khai, Dr. J. M. Paupu, Pu K. Zawla, Pu R. Vanlawma, B. Lalthangliana, Dr. V. Lunghnema, Dr. Hawlngam Haokip, Pu L. S. Gangte, Pu T. Gougin, Pu Thang Khan Gin Ngaihte, Rev. S. Prim Vaiphei, Rev. Khup Za Go, Pu L. Kelvom, Rev. S. T. Hau Go. Dr. Khen Za Sian, Prof. Thang Za Tuan, Rev. Sing Ling etc. concluded that ZO is the ancestor of the Zo people (Zomi).
4. The lost tribe of lsrael were living ln different parts of India as well as in the Lushai Hill, now known as Mizo in the State of Mizoram. lndlan Jews are a religious minority of India. Judaism was as one of the first non-Dharmic religions to arrive in India in recorded history. The better established ancient communities have assimilated a large number of local traditions through culture diffusion. The Jewish population in India is hard to estimate since each Jewish community is distinct with different origins; some arrived during the time of the Kingdom of Judah, others are seen by some as descendants of Israel’s Lost Tribes. Of the total Jewish population in India, about half live in Mizoram and quarter live in the city of Mumbai. Unlike many parts of the world, Jews have historically lived in India without anti-semitism from Indians (though they have been victims of anti-Semitism from the Portuguese and the Christian Goa lnquisition during their colonial rule). Jews have held important positions under Indian princes in the past an even after independence from British Rule, they have risen to very high positions in government, military and industry. In addition to Jewish members of various diplomatic corps, there are five native Jewish communities in India:
(i) The Cochin Jews arrived in India 2,500 years ago
Manipur started practicing Judaism in the l970s, claiming to be descendants of the Tribe of Manasseh, They have since been recognized by Israel as a lost tribe, and most have left, or plan to leave India and emmigrate to Israel after undergoing a conversion to Orthodox Judaism from either Hinduism, or Christianity. Their population break up is about 5,00,000 with an area of 9,500 sq km. in Manipur, about 8,00,000 with an area of 22,000 sq km. in Mizoram about 2,00,000 with an area of 1000 sq km. Cachar and
In North East India, in the land mass that lies between Myanmar (former Burma) and Bangladesh, there lives a small group of people who have been practicing Judaism for more than 27 years. They have not taken on a “new” religion, these people, in fact, have returned to the religion of their ancestors. They call themselves Bnei Menashe, descendants of the Tribe of Menashe, one of the ten lost tribes. Also known as the Chhinlung or Shinlung, the Bnei Menashe relate their history of exile from the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 721 B.C. across the silk route finally ending up in India and Myanmar. The story of these people is an amazing one. After thousands of years of exile they have rediscovered their roots and are returning to Judaism.
The Mizos are still known as Lushai in the Chittagong area of Bangladesh in Burma the lost tribes were called in different names like Chin in Chin Hills areas, Matu in Matu areas, Mire in Mire areas, Khumi in the Khumi areas, Hlancho in the Arakan areas, etc.
5. That in order to know the origin of the Mizos, as to whether they are the decendants of Manasseh and Ephraim, one needs to know in order to prove with the help of Researchers, etc..
(a) Firstly, the Researcher like Pi Zaithanchhungi in her book called, “Mizo Israel Identity” and Shri Hillel Halkin in his Research Book called “Across the Sabbath river” are one of the sources from where the Mizos could be ldentified as the lost Tribe of Israel. Besides these, there are many documents and writing in regards to the old customary practices of the Chhinlung Israel people – Mizos before the advent of Christianity.
(b) The tribes as a matter of fact, have more than sixty customs that resemble to the Jewish customs. In this regard Rabbi Avachail said, “There is simply too much similarity between their customs and ours for it to be coincidental”, We may also quote Rabbi Shlomo Riskin words, “l have now become convinced from listening lo the stories that they recorded from their grant parents about the ancient customs. The fact is that it is very difficult not to accept their tradition that they come from the tribe of Menashe.” ( Long lost Jews, Pessah p..2)
(c) Malkin has spent many years searching the lost Menashe tribe in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, etc but which he found it at last in the North East India. Dr Khuplam was one whom Halkin has gathered information related to Kuki traditional customs, folk songs and ancient chants. Recently he was invited to Israel where he had meeting with Israel officials and intellectuals.
(d) Secondly there is another versions as to how the ancestors of the Chhinlung people came to their present abode. According to this during the reign of Shih Huang Ti about 221 BC, the first Emperor of China, all able persons were forced to render their services for the country and, as forced Emperor was the order of the day, it is most likely that the ancestors of Mizos might have occupied the caves for a considerable time because of which may were even known as “Cave Dwellers”, “cave men” or sometimes as hill man. During their stay in Chhinlung caves, they could not do any cultivation or go out for hunting because of the fear of hazing detected by their enemies who were in search of them. So they had to live on wild fruits, roots and leafy vegetables. They could not make clothes, and wore animal skin. It is said that once day, the Chinese Army found out their caves and raided their hideouts. The ancestors of the Mizos who had been hiding in Chhinlung caves areas were chased out and driven to Burma. The Chinese soldiers snatched away all their possessions. Here they destroyed the Leather Scroll ( books containing the Ten Commandments) of the Mizos and since then the Mizos do not have their own script. They said that their books were eaten by dogs. In those days, the Chinese soldiers were called dogs.
(e) Thirdly, in conjunction to their habitat in China areas, how the ancestors of the Chhinlung – Israel, descendant of Manasseh and Ephraim could visited the said areas, it is written n the Holy Bible Apogripha, as per 2 Esdra Chapter 13:41-45 verses as follows:-
So, it is not difficult to co-join from Israel crossing Euphrates river and proceeded towards far east, i.e. China by spending one and ‘haf years on the en-route. They did sojourn there till they were driven out from China towards Burma, The Chhinlung people firstly stayed in Shan States of Burma. But due to heavy famine, they left the place and came down towards the southern western part of Burma to Chin Valley and Kanbaw valley where the documents and old writings including planting of trees (BUNG) could be found till today. Besides these documents and writings, the old customary practice of the Chhinlung/Mizo people before the advent of Christianity proved many links of the lost tribe Israel in regards to many sacrifices, ceremony performed at the birth of a child, ceremony of marriages when the bride is to be escorted in the house of bridegroom at the appearances of stars, the preparation of dead body with our blood brother, the Jewish people, etc. Researcher Zaithanchhungi had collected similar customary practices more than 90 points in her Research Book. On the other hand, the name of Mannaseh was uttered in prayers and ceremonial sacrifices. Whenever they were to make any new settlement or to undertake an adventurous exploits, they had to invoke Manmasi’s name. In times of great calamities like earthquake, they used to shout, “Be kind, be kind; we, the decedendants of Manasseh (Manmasi) are here!” As for the origin of this name, it is argued, that it is derived from Mannaseh, the older son of Joseph., the eleventh and favorite son of Jacob in the Old Testament. To support this theory, let us quote one folk song as follows:-
At the time of Khawpal sacrifice, the Mizo priest would say to the evil spirit “ What can you do against us? We are the descendants of Manasseh.”
Manasseh, brother of Ephraim, was also connected with sacrifices. Here we may give at few examples where and when Manasseh’s name was chanted.
First, when one was coming home sick from the Jhum, the sickness was believed to be caused by an evil spirit. Bawipu (the priest) then performed on offering by chanting as:
Thirdly, when they found anything suspected to be taboo, they would shout saying, “Go away, go away, we are bringing Manese here”. Fourthly, while performing Kawngpui Siam, a sacrifice , for success in hunting, the performer-priest recited the following chant:
6. On 28-10-1999, the CIPC had organized Meeting at Vanapa Hall at Aizawl for Identity referendum. On that day, the Chief Guest was Mr. Lal Thanhawla, Ex-Chief Minister of Mizoram and the Guest of Honour was David R.Ashkennezy from Israel and famous writer Hellel Halkin (Author of Beyond Sabbath River). The said declaration of the Chhinlung Israel, the lost tribe of Israel was submitted to the United Nation on Oct 28 1994. It declared that, the people of Kuki Chin-Mizo/ Chhinlung Chhuak ethnic group inhabitants of the Chin Hills, the Matu areas of Myanmar. The Chittagong Hill tracts and plains in Bangladesh. The Mizoram State and the adjacent areas in Manipur, Assam and Tripura are the descendents of one ancestor. All the people gathered there rised their voice in one accord saying, “ Chhinlung people shall not he scattered nor fall again”.
The declaration also says, “We pledge our faith and confidence ln the Committee and code of the United Nations in the proclamation of our basic human right in conformity with the charter of the UN. The Kuki Chin in Myanmar, Lushai in Bangladesh and Mizo ln lndia and the direct descendant of the biblical tribes of the Northern kingdom of Israel of the tribe of Menashe and Ephraim sons of Joseph born in Egypt through his Egyptian wife Asenath convince that the time has come to declare our true identity that we the Chhinlung Chhuak are the lost tribes of Israel to the world.
Today there are many Bnei Menashe who live in Mizoram and Manipur with a handful in Assam and Burma (Myanmar). Most of them have undergone conversion waiting to go to Israel the land of their forefather. Even some devoted Christians, church leaders too have agreed to the Israel / Jewish origin.
The memorandum of appeal prepared by the CIPC seek to clarify and represent the case of all the Chhinlung Chhuak Israel ethnic origin living now in India, Myanmar and Bangladesh for our rights to be recognized as the Lost tribe of Israel and be proclaimed to the world and also our rights to be re-unified and restored under one administration unit in the spirit and charter of the Chin-Lushai Conference at Fort William Calcutta on the 29th January 1892,, as we are known by different names in different countries that we are divided into so the name – Mizo, Zo, Zomi, Chin-Kuki, Lushai or Chhinlung Chhuak are all the same name that we are called by. Hence the name used in different parts shall be treated as the same name for the Chhinlung-Israel people of the Lost tribe of Israel. According to the said memorandum the brief history of the descendant of Manasseh and Ephraim were stated as follows:-
The foretather of the Chhinlung Chhuak / Mizo hailed from a place called Chhinlung, a mythical rock cave somewhere in the northern part of China, before that they were in captive ln Babylon, Assuria, from there they move eastwards. So the word Chhinlung Chhuak means one who comes out of the rock or cave as in the Book of Isaiah 51: 1-2. ( Hearken to me ye that follow after righteousness. Ye that seek the Lord: look unto the rock ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye are digged…)
The administrative system of the Chhinlung Chhuak was simple and efficient. The people had a King with Chiefs in villages under them, The King and the Chiefs were assisted by the Elders. There are priest, artisan, warrior and youth leaders of the village. The youth were trained in the ‘Zawlbuk’, a youth dormitory for training in all aspects of life. The cultural and social life of the Chhinlung Chhuak in the past was peaceful and independent one. They lived freely and happily for about 500 years from 1100 A.D. to 1600 A.D. till the advent of the British Expedition from 1767-1771, 1871-1872 and from 1888-1890 as on record available.
The British annexed the whole of Chhinlung Chhuak land and brought it under its rule in 1890. Then they divided the land/ country into three separate administrative units; The eastern parts at the present Chin Hills and Arakan were put under the Chief Commissioner of Burma. The Central and northern parts of the country- present Mizoram state and part of Assam, Manipur and Tripura states of present India fell under the administration of the Chief Commissioner of Assam. The western area of present Mizoram state of India, including the present Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh fell under the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal. So the division of Chhinlung Chhuak land / Chin-Lushai country was imposed in 1890 against the freely expressed wishes of the Chhinlung Chhuak Israel ethnic group to whom those land is inseparable since time immemorial. As Prophet Jeremiah of lsrael said in Chapter 22: 10-11, 26, 27. ( Weep ye not for the dead, neither hemoan him; but weep more for him that goeth away, for he shall remain no moral nor see his native country, etc )
7. The British rulers had considered it very desirable to put the whole of the acquired Chin-Lushai country / Chhinlung Chhuak area under one administrative head. The Chin-Lushai Conference at fort William in Calcutta on January 29, 1892 had also adopted a resolution to this regards and in this connection, correspondence was made to the Government of India as follows:-
The Hon’ble Sir Charles Alfred Elliott, K.C.S.I.
2. I am directed to forward herewith certain resolutions passed by the members of the Conference, bearing on the present condition of things under which the Chin-Lushai country is dealt with by three different administrations and suggesting certain changes, in the administration of the tract, with a list of replies to the various points raised for discussion in para 4 of the Government of India letter above mentioned.
l am, Sir,
8. From the Diary dt. 22nd September, 1890, Captain Merville I.M.S., Military Doctor, wrote as follows:-
Another famous writer F.K. Lehman in his Book called ‘By doing statement of F.K. Lehman and his brief Biography’ at page 70, he wrote as follows:-
9. From the Diary of J.H. Lorrain, Pioneer Missionary to Mizoram at 18 pages wrote as follows:-
10. On September 1934, the British Government had ordered to India, Pakistan and Burma to make their respective boundary border. Accordingly, the Draft report was sent to the Buckingham Palace. In the month of February 1935, the scrutiny of the areas were done and it was found out that the areas covering 360 miles in length, and 250 miles in breath, total areas of 93600 sq. miles was lying vacant. So the British Government declared that the occupying of Israel are excluded area and the Draft was sent to the Government of British for approval.
The British Government, after careful study of the Draft, apprehended that the name Israel may created some problems in future, suggested that the name “ISRAEL” may be deleted before signature was put in the said Draft. Accordingly in the draft, “the Luz-Israel occupying is” has been deleted, and the said draft simply put “EXCLUDED AREA” and the said draft was signed by the British Government in 1836.
The Government of India also had made Order of Excluded and Partially Excluded areas 3rd March, 1936 as follows:-
THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
This order may be cited as “The Government of India (Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas) 1936”. The areas specified in Part I of the schedule to this Order shall be the excluded area, and the areas specified in Part II of the schedule of the partially excluded areas within the meaning of the Act.
11. His Excellency Sir Robert Reid, the Governor of Assam and High Commissioner of British-India visited Aijal (now called Aizawl, the capital of Mizoram State) in 1940 of present India. Here the representative of Chhinlung Chhuak / Chin-Kuki-Lushai submitted a representation urging the visiting Sir Robert Reid to take step for the territorial re-unification of Chin-Lushai land in the spirit of the Chin-Lushai Conference 1892. With this in mind, Sir Robert Reid made a proposal for the re-unification of Chin-Lushai land under one administrative head in 1941. The late Sir Winston Churchill, the then Prime Minister of Britain had approved Sir Robert Reid plan in principle. But the matter was not taken up by the Labour party which comes into power after World War II.
12. On April 3, 1942 the Chiefs of Lushai Hills declared war separately and independently against the invading Heroes and so resolved to fight the war side by side with the allied forces. These Chiefs made the declaration because of the fact that Lushai Hills and Chin-Lushai country was an excluded area. Likewise in the Chiefs of Chin Hills also made a separate declaration of war in favor of the allied forces. For this recognition the Burmese Constitution had provided the people of Chin Hills and other frontier Hill Tracts with the Tight of Session after ten (10) years.
13. The late Prime Minister of Great Britain Sir Winston Churchill and the state President of America Mr. Roosevelt had an important meeting in August 1941, in which the two world leaders made a joint declaration which said, among others that they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the people concerned. This point deemed to be relevant in the case of the then Chin-Lushai people / Chhinlung Chhuak which had formed a part of the allied forces, as in the case of other colonial counties like India, Burma(Myanmar), Ceylon (Sri Lanka), etc., because of being an Excluded Area as per The Order of 1935 from the Court at Buckingham Palace.
14. On April 3,, 1942 the Chiefs of Lushai Hills declared war separately and independently against the invading forces and so resolved to fight the war side by side with the allied forces. These Chiefs made the declaration because of the fact that Lushai Hills and Chin-Lushai country was an excluded area.
In 1942, 3rd April A.G. MCCALL promulgate an oath on behalf of King George VI before three hundred (300) Kings and Elders who link hand around the Union Jack. The words as stated below:
15. MIZO UNION, the first political party of the then Lushai Hills now called Mizoram State of India, had submitted a memorandum to His Majesty Government, the Government of India and its constituent Assembly on April 26,1947 seeking to represent the case of Mizo / Chhinlung Chhuak for territorial unity and integrity of the whole within the province of Chin Lushai population with full self-determination of Assam.
PROCEEDINGS OF A MEETING OF THE
1. Resolved that owing to the unexpected acceleration of the date of transfer of power by the British Government and as the Lushais have not as yet been definitely informed in the details as to what is to be the proposed future constitution and form of administration of the district and as section (7) sub – Section (2) of the Indian Independence Bill does not clarify the situation, it is accordingly thought that His Excellency the Governor of Assam should kindly inform them in writing as to what these are to be, also whether Lushais are at this stage allowed the option of joining any other dominion, i.e. Pakistan or Burma. Resolved further that Superintendent, Lushai Hills should kindly communicate the above request of the Lushais to the Adviser to His Excellency, the Governor of Assam in order to clarify these points.
2. Resolved that if the Lushais are to enter the Indian Union their main demands are:
No. 6927-76 G of 21 -08-47. Copy forwarded to all the leaders who took part in the proceedings.
But the leader of Mizo Union said to H.W. Cutter “Don’t say no more about this.” How foolishness would it be for the leaders of Mizo Union who did not have calculation about their land and how to protect their land.
17. Under the Chairmanship of the then Superintendent of Lushai Hills (now Mizoram State of India Mr. L.L. Peters with 50 (fifty) accredited leaders of Lushai Hills, representing Chiefs and commoners had submitted a memorandum to the Adviser to His Excellency, the Governor of Assam demanding among others that the Lushai / Chhinlung Chhuak be allowed to opt out of Indian Union when they wish to do so subject to a minimum period of ten (10) years.
18. The MIZO NATIONAL FRONT under the leadership of Mr. Laldenga (late) on October 30, 1965 submitted a memorandum to the then Prime Minister of India, demanding full self-determination for the people of Mizo / Chhinlung Chhuak, and on the midnight of February 28, 1966 first armed offensive was launched against the Republic of India for securing territorial independence for the same ethnic group of Mizo / Chhinlung Chhuak. But the armed struggle for independence came to an end on June 30, 1986 following the adoption and signing of the memorandum of settlement after twenty (20) years of fighting.
19. Then on May 19-21,1988 the First World Zomi Convention was called and held at Champhai in Mizoram State of India for the re-unification of the same ethnic group into one administrative unit and to be recognized as one race. So, in order to attain the goal and aims and objects for the Zomi Chhinlung Chhuak, a forum called Zo-Reunification. Organization (ZORO) was formed. This organization made a declaration and Charter of Agreement on the Zo Re-unification by forty (40) delegates representing different organization.
20. In the year 1994, as the people of Chhinlung Chhuak awake to their true identity of being Israel the lost tribe as told to us by our ancestor through story told down in us and by webal history. So, a referendum was called by the adhoc body called Chhinlung Israel People Convention whose history and verbal story prove that we are the Lost Tribe of Israel of the tribe of Manasseh and Ephraim.
The People – Land and Tradition
22. Population break up of the Chhinlung Chhuak / Mizo.
23. So the total population of Chin-Lushai / Chhinlung Chhuak are about 4,72,00,00 (four million seventy two thousands) with the land area of 124500 sq. km. Therefore, looking into this population break up it is a great injustice that the Chhinlung Chhuak / Mizo having the same culture speaking the same language, professing the same religions and knitted together by common custom and traditions should have been called and known by different names, and scattered among different people with their homeland sliced out and given to others with different names in different country even up to this day. So, our appeal to the D.N.A. is to be recognized as the Lost Tribe of Israel of the tribe of Manasseh and Ephraim in our respective area that we are now living in.
On the other hand, in return, Suakpuilala also gave some GIFTS to Captain Browne, The items were as follows:-
After Captain Browne had made GIFTS to Luz Israel Chief Sukpilal, on 24th August, 1890 Mr. G.P. Welly had made a GIFTS to chief Suakhnuna, (son-in-law of Suakpuilala) by saying:-
Some of the items were kept by the descendants of Suakpuilala, Suakhnuna, now living at Maubawk veng, Aizawl.
24. When Lallula Sailo chief of Sailam village sent his warriors to invade Alexandrapur in 1870, the manager of Alexandrapur Tea Garden namely Dr, James Winchester was killed and chopped off his head, His only daughter Mary Winchester , about 5 yrs old (whose mother was Jatly Kangmeiza-Manipuri) was captured and brought her back to Sailam village. This events was recorded in the Mirror Magazine as follows:-•
From the diary of Captain Libton David, British Army on 27th November, 1830 wrote as follows:-
From the diary of A.S. Relgo, MB; LMG, MO: 2nd Bn, 4th GR, 1893, runs as follows:-
25. The CIPC Identity referendum declaration of the Chhinlung Israel the lost tribe of Israel was submitted to the United Nations on Oct 28, 1994 and no less to the Government of India Myanmar and Bangladesh to appreciate our claim for the restoration of our basic human rights in conformity with the spirit of Chin-Lushai conference 1892 at Fort William, Calcutta on 29th January, and with the spirit of the Atlantic Charter which recommended “no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the people concerned, so that we can identify one self as belonging to one ethnic group” The lost tribe of Israel of the tribes of Manasseh and Ephraim, the sons at Joseph – born in Egypt.
It declared that, the people of Kuki Chin-Mizo / Chhinlung Chhuak ethnic group inhabitants of the Chin Hill, the Matu areas of Myanmar, The Chittagong Hill tracts and plains in Bangladesh. The Mizoram State and the adjacent areas in Manipur, Assam and Tripura are the descendents of one ancestor.
The declaration also says, “We pledge our faith and confidence in the Committee and code of the United Nations in the proclamation of our basic human right in conformity with the charter or the UN. The Kuki Chin in Myanmar, Lushai in Bangladesh and Mizo in India and the direct descendant of the biblical tribes of the Northern kingdom of Israel of the tribe of Manasseh and Ephraim sons of Joseph born in Egypt through his Egyptian wife Asthans convince that the time has come to declare our true Identify that we the Chhinlung Chhuak are the lost tribes of Israel to the world.”
26. Today there are many Bnei Menashe who live in Mizoram and Manipur with a handful in Assam and Burma (Myanmar). Most of them have undergone conversion waiting to go to Israel, the land of their forefather, Even some devoted Christians, church leaders too have agreed to the Israel / Jewish origin.
To these days, many Pastors, including Evangelical preachers amongst the Mizos used to say that “We the Mizo people are the chosen people by God”. Etc. Every body believed that we are really the chosen people, to preach the Gospel and the salvation through Jesus Christ, etc. If this to be accepted as true facts, and if we try to find from the Bible that who are the chosen people? Then we can find from the Bible that the only chosen people are Israel only. Thus we are Israel not by faith, but by birth through Manasseh and Ephraim.